In 1911, at the time of the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in China, the independence of Outer Mongolia was proclaimed. The monarch of the first independent Mongolian state was the eighth Javzandamba Khutagt, Bogd Khan, who lived from1869 to 1924. The spiritual leader and theocratic ruler of Mongolia lived close to the Tuul River in the Winter Palace, built between 1893 and 1903. The palace complex consists of seven temples, grouped symmetrically around two courtyards, with exterior painted finishes in bright red, green, blue, white, and gold colors. Designed according to Russian and European traditions, the palace was completed in 1905, and a new ceremonial gate was added during the Bogd Khan’s rule to celebrate Mongolian independence.